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The Directive 2009/128/EC establishes the framework to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides, giving priority whenever possible, to alternative non-chemical measures. Thus, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), is defined as “the careful consideration of all available plant protection methods and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of populations of harmful organisms and keep the use of phytosanitary products and other ways of intervention to levels that are economically and ecologically justified and reduce or minimise the risks to human health and the environment”. The IPM emphasises the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural mechanisms of pest control. The IPM tools can be displayed in a pyramid, which is divided into four different parts: - Preventive measures: They are placed at the base of the pyramid so they have priority over the other levels. These indirect control measures include agronomic practices such as choice of resistant varieties, cultural measures (crop rotation, time of sowing, fertilization management, irrigation, tillage…) and different practices to boost auxiliary fauna. - The next level is for risk evaluation, which it is a key in IPM strategy. The Pest Monitoring and Warning System is an elemental tool to monitor pests and diseases and to establish strategies to control them. - Finally, if the previous work has been insufficient and, after applying preventive measures, the pest or disease is detected, there are curative measures available (direct control). Among these measures, the chemical control with pesticides is the last alternative than must be used to control pests and diseases.

AGROintegra DST Pests monitoring and warning system Culture guides

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